Brett Ashley Leeds
Rice University

with assistance from:
Andrew G. Long,
Michaela Mattes,
Sara McLaughlin Mitchell,
Jeffrey M. Ritter,
and Burcu Savun

Receive ATOP Updates
Check this box to unsubscribe.
Mailing List Information

Selected Publications Using ATOP Data

Below you will find a list of published articles using the ATOP data along with replication datasets for particular studies. This list is not exhaustive. Authors wishing to post their work here should contact us.

Long, Andrew G. and Brett Ashley Leeds. forthcoming. Trading for Security: Military Alliances and Economic Agreements. Journal of Peace Research.
Download Data for Replication

Leeds, Brett Ashley. 2005. Alliances and the Expansion and Escalation of Militarized Interstate Disputes. In New Directions for International Relations, Alex Mintz and Bruce Russett, eds. Lanham MD: Lexington Books, 117-134.
Download Data for Replication

Long, Andrew G. 2003. Defense Pacts and International Trade. Journal of Peace Research 40 (5): 537-552.
Download Manuscript and Data for Replication

Leeds, Brett Ashley. 2003. Alliance Reliability in Times of War: Explaining State Decisions to Violate Treaties. International Organization 57: 801-827.
Download Data for Replication

Leeds, Brett Ashley. 2003. Do Alliances Deter Aggression? The Influence of Military Alliances on the Initiation of Militarized Interstate Disputes. American Journal of Political Science 47: 427-439.
Download Data for Replication
Offprint: This is an electronic version of an article published in American Journal of Political Science. Complete citation information for the final version of the paper, as published in the print edition of American Journal of Political Science, is available at

Leeds, Brett Ashley, Jeffrey M. Ritter, Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, and Andrew G. Long. 2002. Alliance Treaty Obligations and Provisions, 1815-1944. International Interactions 28: 237-260.
Download Data for Replication

Leeds, Brett Ashley, Andrew G. Long, and Sara McLaughlin Mitchell. 2000. Reevaluating Alliance Reliability: Specific Threats, Specific Promises. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44: 686-699.
Download Coding of Cases